Ethereum is a network made up of numerous communities and a collection of tools that allow people to interact and transact without being governed by a single entity. You retain control over your own data and what is shared, so using Ethereum doesn’t need you to give up all of your personal information. Ether, an Ethereum-specific coin, is used to pay for some services on the Ethereum network.

What Is Ethereum?

Ethereum is a blockchain-based decentralised global software platform at its heart. It is best known for ether (ETH), a native cryptocurrency.

Anyone can use Ethereum to develop any secure digital technology. It has a token created to compensate users for work done in favour of the blockchain, but if accepted, users may also use it to pay for material products and services.

Scalable, programmable, secure, and decentralised are all features of Ethereum. It is the blockchain of choice for programmers and businesses building technology atop it to transform numerous sectors and how we go about our daily lives.

Smart contracts, a key component of decentralised apps, are natively supported.

Smart contracts and blockchain technology are used in many decentralised finance (DeFi) and other applications.

Learn more about the non-fungible tokens, decentralised finance, decentralised autonomous organisations, and the metaverse as they relate to Ethereum and its token, ETH.


  • The blockchain-based platform Ethereum is best known for the ether (ETH) cryptocurrency it uses.
  • Ethereum’s blockchain technology makes it possible to establish and maintain openly accessible secure digital ledgers.
  • Although Bitcoin and Ethereum share many characteristics, they have different long-term goals and constraints.
  • In September 2022, Ethereum switched from proof of work to proof of stake.
  • Many new blockchain-based technology developments are built on Ethereum.

What is Ethereum’s Mechanism?

2014 saw the release of a white paper by Vitalik Buterin, who is credited with creating Ethereum.

Buterin and Joe Lubin, the creator of the blockchain software startup ConsenSys, unveiled the Ethereum platform in 2015.

Ethereum’s creators were among the first to take into account blockchain technology’s entire potential, which goes beyond only providing safe virtual payment methods.

Since the release of Ethereum, ether’s market value has increased and it is now the second-largest cryptocurrency. Only Bitcoin outperforms it.

Blockchain Technology

Like other cryptocurrencies, Ethereum makes use of blockchain technology. A very long chain of blocks comes to mind. Each newly formed block with new data adds all the information from each block. A single copy of the blockchain is spread across the network.

A network of automated programmes that come to an agreement on the truthfulness of transaction data authenticate this blockchain. The blockchain cannot be altered unless the network as a whole agrees to do so. It is quite safe because of this.

Important: In the middle of September 2022, Ethereum made the transition to a proof-of-stake algorithm, which is less expensive and less harmful to the environment than a proof-of-work model.

Proof-of-Stake Mechanism

In contrast to proof-of-work, proof-of-stake doesn’t require the power-hungry computer process known as mining to validate blocks. It employs the LMD Ghost algorithm and the Casper-FFG finalisation protocol to create the Gasper consensus mechanism, which keeps track of consensus and establishes the conditions under which validators are rewarded for their efforts or penalised for lying.

To activate their ability to validate, solo validators must stake 32 ETH. Smaller stakes of ETH can be made by individuals, but they must join a validation pool and split any prizes. In a procedure known as attestation, a validator writes a new block and attests that the data is accurate. The block is then broadcast to other validators, collectively known as a committee, who verify it and vote on its accuracy.

Under proof-of-stake, dishonest validators are penalised. Gasper, which decides which blocks to accept and reject based on the votes of the validators, detects validators who seek to assault the network.

In order to punish dishonest validators, their staked ETH is burned, and they are also removed from the network. Sending cryptocurrency to a wallet without keys is referred to as “burning,” which removes it from circulation.


Owners of Ethereum save their ether in wallets. You can access your ether that is kept on the blockchain using a wallet, which is a digital interface. You have an address in your wallet, which is like an email address in that it is where users transfer ether, much like they would an email.

In reality, your wallet does not contain any ether. Private keys are kept in your wallet, which you use as you would a password to start a transaction. For each Ether you possess, you are given a private key. For you to access your ether, you need this key. For this reason, you hear a lot about safeguarding keys using various storage techniques.

Historic Split

The hard fork, or split, of Ethereum and Ethereum Classic is one significant occasion in Ethereum’s history.

The Ethereum blockchain was taken over by a group of network users in 2016 so they could steal more than $50 million worth of ether that had been raised for a project named The DAO.

The engagement of a third-party developer for the new project was credited with the raid’s success. The majority of the Ethereum community chose to invalidate the current Ethereum blockchain and approve a new blockchain with a changed history in order to stop the theft.

A small portion of the community opted to keep the Ethereum blockchain’s initial configuration, nevertheless. The cryptocurrency Ethereum Classic (ETC) was created when that unaltered version of Ethereum irrevocably split.

Ethereum vs. Bitcoin

Ethereum and Bitcoin are frequently contrasted. Although there are numerous parallels between the two cryptocurrencies, there are also some significant differences.

The founders and developers of Ethereum refer to it as “the world’s programmable blockchain,” portraying it as an electronic, programmable network with a wide range of uses.

In contrast, the Bitcoin blockchain was developed exclusively to support the bitcoin cryptocurrency.


The Ethereum platform was created with the lofty goal of utilising blockchain technology for a wide range of applications. Only as a means of payment, Bitcoin was intended.

There can be a total of 21 million bitcoins in circulation.

Although the number of ETH that can be produced is limitless, the annual production of ETH is constrained by the time it takes to process a block of ETH.

More than 122 million Ethereum currencies are currently in use.

The way that the rival networks handle transaction processing fees is another important distinction between Ethereum and Bitcoin. On the Ethereum network, these charges are referred to as gas and are covered by the parties taking part in transactions. The larger Bitcoin network pays the costs connected with transactions.

As of September 2022, Ethereum implements a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm. The proof-of-work consensus used by Bitcoin necessitates a lot of energy, and miners must compete for rewards.

The Future of Ethereum

As part of a substantial upgrade to the Ethereum network, Ethereum is switching to the proof-of-stake protocol, which enables users to confirm transactions and create new ETH depending on their ether holdings. This upgrade, which was formerly known as Eth2, is now simply known as Ethereum. Ethereum now has two layers, though. Transactions and validations take place in the execution layer, which is the first layer. Consensus is the second layer, where attestations and the consensus chain are kept up to date.

The upgrade increased the Ethereum network’s capacity to accommodate its expansion, which will eventually assist in resolving persistent network congestion issues that have raised petrol prices.

Ethereum is continuing “sharding” development to solve scalability. The Ethereum network will share the database using sharding. This concept is comparable to cloud computing, where a large number of machines share the workload to speed up computation. These more compact database segments will be known as shards, and individuals who have staked ETH will work on shards. More validators will be able to work simultaneously thanks to shards, which will cut down on the time required for the so-called “sharding consensus” process.Sharding is anticipated to be put into use in 2023.


Although Web3 is currently only a concept, many of the applications being created today use Ethereum, hence it is commonly assumed that Ethereum will power Web3.

Use in Gaming

Ethereum is also being used in virtual reality and gaming. The Ethereum blockchain is used by the virtual world Decentraland to safeguard the goods that are present there. The blockchain is used to tokenize real estate, wearables, surroundings, and avatars in order to generate ownership.

Another blockchain-based game is Axie Infinity, which has its own money called Smooth Love Potion (SLP) that is utilised for in-game awards and transactions.

Non-Fungible Tokens

In general, tokenization assigns each digital asset a unique digital token that serves as both its identification and its storage on the blockchain.

Due to the encrypted data containing the owner’s wallet address, ownership is established. The NFT is seen as a transaction on the blockchain and is tradable or savable. Ownership is transferred after the transaction has been validated by the network.

For all different types of assets, NFTs are being developed. Sports fans, for instance, can purchase sports tokens—also known as fan tokens—of their preferred sportsmen, which can be used as trading cards. Some of these NFTs are films of noteworthy or important moments in the athlete’s career, while others are images that resemble trading cards.


Your wallet, a dApp, the virtual world and buildings you visit, and other applications you might use in the metaverse were probably created on Ethereum.

The Development of DAOs

Imagine, for instance, that you established a venture capital fund and obtained money through fund-raising, but that you would like decentralised decision-making and automatic, transparent disbursements.

A DAO may collect fund members’ votes via smart contracts and applications, invest in projects based on the majority of those votes, and then automatically distribute any profits. There would be no involvement of third parties in the handling of any funds, and all participants could see the transactions.

It’s still unclear what role cryptocurrencies will play in the future. Ethereum, however, seems to be positioned for a large, impending role in both personal and corporate finance as well as many facets of our contemporary life.

How Can I Buy Ethereum?

To purchase and sell ether, investors can use one of the many cryptocurrency exchange websites. Dedicated cryptocurrency exchanges like Coinbase, Kraken, Gemini, Binance, and brokerages like Robinhood support Ethereum.

How Does Ethereum Make Money?

Ethereum is not a centralised business that generates revenue. The Ethereum network pays validators who take part with ETH for their contributions.

Is Ethereum a Good Investment?

The answer to that relies on your financial goals, objectives, and risk tolerance, just like with any investment. Capital may be at risk due to the volatility of the ETH cryptocurrency. Nevertheless, it is unquestionably worth looking into as an investment because the different current and future creative technologies that utilise Ethereum may come to play a bigger part in our society.

Is Ethereum a Cryptocurrency?

Ether, sometimes known as ETH, is a native cryptocurrency of the Ethereum platform. In addition to cryptocurrencies, a wide variety of decentralised apps (dApps) are supported by the blockchain technology platform Ethereum. Ethereum is the name given to the ETH token, although this does not change the fact that Ethereum is a blockchain-powered platform, and ether is its cryptocurrency.

Can Ethereum Be Converted to Cash?

Yes. ETH-holding investors can carry out this transaction through online exchanges like Coinbase, Kraken, and Gemini. Simply register for an account on the exchange, link a bank account, and transmit ETH from an Ethereum wallet to the exchange account. You can sell ETH by placing an order on the exchange. Transfer the American currency revenues from the sale to the associated bank account afterward.

It is neither Investopedia’s or the author’s advise to invest in cryptocurrencies or initial coin offers (ICOs), as doing so is extremely dangerous and speculative. Before making any financial decisions, it is always advisable to get the advice of a knowledgeable professional due to the individuality of each person’s position. The accuracy and timeliness of the information in this article are not guaranteed by Investopedia.