A cryptocurrency, such as Bitcoin (BTC), eliminates the need for third parties to be involved in financial transactions by acting as money and a means of payment independent of any one person, group, or entity. It is available for purchase on numerous platforms and is given to blockchain miners as compensation for their efforts in verifying transactions.

By utilising the alias Satoshi Nakamoto, an unidentified developer or group of developers presented Bitcoin to the general public in 2009.

Since then, it has grown to be the most well-known cryptocurrency worldwide. Numerous additional cryptocurrencies have been developed as a result of its popularity. These rivals either want to displace it as a means of payment or are employed in other blockchains and cutting-edge financial technology as utility or security tokens.

Learn more about the original cryptocurrency, including its origin narrative, workings, where to find it, and applications.


  • According to market capitalization, Bitcoin, which debuted in 2009, is the biggest cryptocurrency in the world.
  • Bitcoin, unlike traditional money, is produced, circulated, traded, and stored using a blockchain, a decentralised ledger system.
  • Proof-of-work (PoW) consensus, which is also the “mining” procedure that adds new bitcoins to the system, protects Bitcoin and its ledger.
  • Several cryptocurrency exchanges allow for the purchase of bitcoin.
  • The history of Bitcoin as a store of value has been tumultuous; during the course of its relatively brief existence, it has experienced numerous boom and bust cycles.
  • In its wake, a plethora of new cryptocurrencies have been inspired by Bitcoin, the first decentralised virtual money to experience global acceptance and success.

Recognising Bitcoin was registered as a domain name in August 2008. At least as of right now, this domain is protected by WhoisGuard, making it private and making it impossible to learn who registered it.

On the Cryptography Mailing List at in October 2008, someone or some organisation going by the fictitious name Satoshi Nakamoto posted: “I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.””Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System,” a now-famous white paper that was posted on, would go on to become the Magna Carta for how Bitcoin functions today.

Block 0—the very first Bitcoin block—was mined on January 3, 2009. This is also referred to as the “genesis block” and contains the text: “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks,” which may serve as both relevant political commentary and as evidence that the block was mined on or after that date.

Every 210,000 blocks, the incentives for Bitcoin are halved. As an illustration, in 2009, the block reward was 50 new bitcoins. The reward for finding a block was reduced to 6.25 bitcoins on May 11, 2020, as a result of the third halving.

The smallest unit of a bitcoin, which is divisible to eight decimal places (100 millionths of a bitcoin), is known as a satoshi. Bitcoin could someday be divided to even more decimal places if necessary and if the active miners agree to the change.

Understanding Bitcoin as a type of digital currency isn’t that difficult. For instance, if you have a bitcoin, you can send smaller amounts of that bitcoin to pay for goods or services using your cryptocurrency wallet. However, when you attempt to grasp how it operates, it gets really difficult.

Quick Fact

The initial version of the Bitcoin software was released to the Cryptography Mailing List on January 8, 2009, and on January 9, 2009, Block 1 was mined and real Bitcoin mining got underway.

The Blockchain Technology of Bitcoin

A blockchain and the network needed to power it contain cryptocurrency. A distributed ledger, or blockchain, is a common database that houses data. The blockchain uses encryption techniques to protect data.

On the blockchain, when a transaction occurs, data from the previous block is copied to a new block with the new data, encrypted, and the transaction is validated by validators, or miners, in the network. A new block is constructed and handed as a reward to the miner(s) that verified the data in the block once a transaction has been confirmed, and they are then free to use, hold, or sell the new Bitcoin.

The information held in the blocks on the blockchain is encrypted by Bitcoin using the SHA-256 hashing algorithm. Simply explained, a 256-bit hexadecimal integer is used to encrypt transaction data that is stored in a block. All transactional information and details related to blocks before to that block are contained in that number.


The ledger is known as a blockchain because of the data that links its blocks together.

A backlog of transactions is created for network miners to validate. In the Bitcoin blockchain network, many miners simultaneously attempt to verify the same transaction. The nonce, a four-byte number contained in the block header that miners are attempting to solve, is worked on by the mining software and hardware.

A miner continually hashes or generates the block header at random until it reaches a target value set by the blockchain. The block header is “solved,” and a new block is generated to encrypt and verify additional transactions.

Bitcoin Mining Techniques

Bitcoin mining can be done using a wide range of hardware and software. On a personal computer, it was possible to mine Bitcoin competitively when it first came out; however, as it gained popularity, more miners joined the network, decreasing the likelihood of being the one to solve the hash. If your own computer has modern hardware, you can still use it to mine, but your odds of successfully solving a hash on your own are extremely slim.

This is due to the fact that you are up against a network of miners that produce 220 exabillion hashes (220 quintillion hashes) each second. Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), which are machines made expressly for mining, have a hash rate of roughly 255 trillion per second. A machine with the newest hardware, in contrast, can hash at a rate of about 100 mega hashes per second (100 million).

You have a few alternatives if you want to successfully mine bitcoins. You can join a mining pool and utilise Bitcoin-compatible mining software on your current personal computer. The big ASIC mining farms are challenged by mining pools, which are collections of miners who pool their computing power.


Joining a pool increases your chances of receiving prizes, but benefits are far less plentiful because they are shared.

You could also buy an ASIC miner if you have the money to do so. A new one typically costs roughly $20,000, but miners also sell used ones when they improve their equipment. If you decide to buy one or more ASICs, there are certain substantial costs, such as electricity and cooling, to take into account.

You have a variety of mining software options and pools to pick from. The two most popular tools are CGMiner and BFGMiner. When selecting a pool, it’s crucial to learn how rewards are distributed, what possible fees can apply, and to read mining pool evaluations.

How Can I Purchase Bitcoin?

Bitcoin can be bought through a cryptocurrency exchange if you don’t want to mine it. Due to its high price, most people won’t be able to buy a whole bitcoin, but you can buy fractions of it on these exchanges using fiat money like dollars. For instance, by setting up an account and funding it, you can purchase bitcoin on Coinbase. Your bank account, credit card, or debit card can be used to fund your account. More information about buying bitcoin is provided in the video below.

How Does Bitcoin Work?

Initially intended and launched as a peer-to-peer payment system, bitcoin. But as its value rises and it faces competition from other blockchains and cryptocurrencies, its use cases are expanding.


You need to have a cryptocurrency wallet in order to use your Bitcoin. The private keys for your bitcoin are stored in wallets and must be entered when making a transaction. Many merchants, retailers, and stores accept bitcoin as payment for goods and services.

The phrase “Bitcoin Accepted Here” is typically shown on signs in physical businesses that accept cryptocurrencies. Transactions can be completed using the required hardware terminal or wallet address via QR codes and touchscreen apps. By including Bitcoin as a payment option alongside credit cards, PayPal, and other online payment methods, an online business can quickly start accepting this currency.


In June 2021, El Salvador became the first nation to formally recognise bitcoin as money.

Speculating and Investing

As Bitcoin gained prominence, investors and speculators developed an interest in it. Bitcoin sales and purchases were made possible by the emergence of cryptocurrency exchanges between 2009 and 2017. Prices started to increase, and demand climbed gradually up until 2017, when it broke the $1,000 barrier. Many people started buying bitcoins to hold because they thought the price would keep rising. Short-term trading on bitcoin exchanges was introduced by traders, and the sector quickly expanded.

The price of Bitcoin plunged in 2022. It peaked in March 2022 at $47,454 and is at $15,731 as of November 2022. The decline in Bitcoin is partially attributable to broader market unrest brought on by inflation, rising interest rates, problems with Covid’s supply chain, and the conflict in Ukraine. Additionally, numerous significant tokens and an important exchange have crashed in the crypto realm, raising questions about the stability of digital currencies.

Risks Associated with Buying Bitcoin

After Bitcoin’s price rose so quickly in recent years, speculative investors were interested in it. On December 31, 2019, the cost of one bitcoin was $7,167.52; one year later, it was worth $28,984.98 after increasing by more than 300%. In the first half of 2021, it kept rising, reaching a record high of $68,990 in November. After that, it began to decline and subsequently fluctuated around the $40,000 mark for the remainder of the year. As previously stated, the price began to decline in early 2022 and has done so for the majority of the year.


The peak price of bitcoin, which was reached in November 2021, was $68,990.

As a result, rather than using Bitcoin as a means of commerce, many people buy it for its potential as an investment. Its purchase and use come with a number of inherent dangers due to its lack of guaranteed value and digital nature. For instance, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) have all issued several investor alerts involving Bitcoin investment.

  • Regulatory risk: The absence of consistent legislation regarding Bitcoin (and other virtual currencies) raises concerns about their durability, liquidity, and applicability to all countries.
  • Risk to security: The majority of people who use and own Bitcoin did not obtain their tokens from mining activities. Instead, people use well-known online marketplaces called cryptocurrency exchanges where users can buy and sell Bitcoin and other digital currencies. Since bitcoin exchanges are totally digital, they are susceptible to malware, hackers, and other operational issues, just like any other virtual system.
  • Insurance risk: Insurance risk: Neither the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC) nor the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) insure Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies. Some exchanges use other companies to provide insurance. SFOX, a premier dealer and trading platform, declared in 2019 that it will be able to provide FDIC insurance to Bitcoin investors, but only for those transactions that involved cash.
  • Fraud risk: Despite the built-in security safeguards of a blockchain, there is still room for fraudulent conduct. For instance, the SEC filed a lawsuit in July 2013 against the owner of a Ponzi operation involving Bitcoin.
  • Market risk: Just like with other investment, the value of bitcoin can change. The currency’s value has fluctuated dramatically during the course of its brief existence. It is highly sensitive to any newsworthy developments and is subject to significant volumes of buying and selling on exchanges. According to the CFPB, Bitcoin’s price dropped by 61% in a single day in 2013, and by as much as 80% in a single day in 2014. 

Regulating Bitcoin

Like with any new technology, it has been challenging to regulate Bitcoin. The current Biden government attempts to enforce rules on Bitcoin while also walking a fine line in order to avoid stifling a developing and economically advantageous sector.

According to Biden, he will work to stop the misuse of Bitcoin while also encouraging its growth. The U.S. has placed a special emphasis on controlling cryptocurrencies and its illegal applications abroad. For example, it has penalised cryptocurrency exchanges and personal wallets and recovered bitcoin payments made to criminals. Additionally, it has been suggested that the US create a central bank digital currency (CBDC) to properly direct these sanctions.

The regulatory landscape for Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies is developing, and over time, there will be several modifications and new legislation.

How Much Time Does It Take to Mine a Bitcoin?

The mining network needs 10 minutes on average to validate a block and produce the reward. 6.25 BTC are awarded for each block in bitcoin. For 1 BTC to be mined, this equates to around 100 seconds.

Bitcoin: Is It a Smart Investment?

The short investment history of bitcoin is marked by extreme price volatility. Your financial situation, investment portfolio, risk tolerance, and investment objectives will all influence whether it is a wise investment. Before investing in cryptocurrencies, you should always seek advice from a financial expert to be sure it is appropriate for your situation.

How Is Bitcoin Profitable?

By successfully verifying blocks and receiving rewards, the Bitcoin network of miners generates revenue. Through cryptocurrency exchanges, bitcoins can be converted into fiat money and used to make purchases from businesses that accept them. Buying and selling bitcoins can generate income for investors and speculators.

What Is the Price of One Bitcoin in US Dollars?

A single Bitcoin is worth $15,766 on November 22, 2022.

What Amount Of Bitcoins Remain?

There are 19,214,106.25 bitcoins in existence in total. As of November 22, 2022, there are 1,785,893.8 Bitcoins still to be mined.

The Conclusion

The original cryptocurrency, bitcoin, was created with the intention of being used as a payment method separate from fiat currency. Since its launch in 2009, Bitcoin’s use cases have grown and its popularity has soared, giving rise to a large number of new rival cryptocurrencies.

Although creating Bitcoin is a complicated process, buying it is much simpler. On cryptocurrency exchanges, buyers and sellers of Bitcoin can transact. Investors should carefully assess if Bitcoin is the proper investment for them before making any investment, especially one as young and erratic as Bitcoin.

This article does not constitute a recommendation by Investopedia or the author to invest in cryptocurrencies or other Initial Coin Offerings (“ICOs”). Investing in cryptocurrencies and other ICOs is very hazardous and speculative. Before making any financial decisions, it is always advisable to get the advice of a knowledgeable specialist because every person’s circumstance is different. No guarantees or claims are made by Investopedia on the timeliness or accuracy of the information provided here.

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